If you need to identify a township or section on map, or plot Public Land Survey Systems (PLSS) boundaries, you can get this data from the Land Survey Information System website, managed by the BLM. Shapefile data is available for most of the US, grouped by state and/or county, in the NAD83 datum. File data includes township, section, subsection, latitude/longitude, and metadata. Note: Make sure you have pop-ups enabled.
There’s also a Township Geocoder web form. Enter the latitude and longitude of the point you’re interested in, NAD27 or NAD83, and get back the state, principal meridian, township, range, section, quarter section, and quarter-quarter section. Or enter the previous data, and get back a latitude/longitude. You can enter individual points, or upload a file for batch point conversion.